The earliest use of additive manufacturing was in rapid prototyping (RP) during the late 1980s and early 1990s. Models give manufacturers a chance to examine an object’s design more closely and even test it before producing a finished product. Rapid prototyping allowed manufacturers to generate those prototypes much faster than before, hours within conceiving the design. In rapid prototyping, designers create models with computer-aided design (CAD) software, and then devices follow that prototype to define how to construct the object. The process of building that object by “printing” its cross-sections layer by layer became known as 3-D printing.
In 1984, the earliest in the history of 3D printing, Charles Hull invented a technique for “printing” a three-dimensional object from a digital prototype. Two years later, he coined the term “Stereolitography” (SLA) and defined it as “system for generating three-dimensional objects by creating a cross-sectional pattern of the object to be formed” when he had it patented. That same year, Hull set up a company called 3D Systems and created Stereolithography Apparatus, the first commercial 3D Printing device. In 1988, 3D Systems introduced model SLA-250 for the populace.
That same year, S. Scott Crump developed a type of 3D printing technology called Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), which uses an “additive” technique that arranges a material in sheets and a plastic strand or metal thread unravels from a loop to provide material to generate a component. In 1989, Crump established 3D printer manufacturing company, Stratasys, which sold 3D Modeler, its first FDM-based machine, in 1992.
In 1991, another company called Helisys Inc. sold its first laminated object manufacturing system, a type of rapid prototyping system that continuously glues together coatings of adhesive-coated material laminates and cuts them to form with a knife or laser cutter.
In 1992, DTM Corp., a start-up organization that developed selective laser sintering (SLS) machines, sold its first system. Invented by Dr. Carl Deckard and Dr. Joe Beaman at the University of Texas-Austin in the 1980s, the SLS 3D printing method uses a high-powered laser to combine materials to form a three-dimensional structure.
In 1993, another 3D printing company Solidscape was established by Royden C. Sanders, which uses an inkjet-based machine that developed high-resolution three-dimensional objects with the help of computer-aided design software. The Model Maker was very precise, which yielded small and detailed models, making it popular with the jewelry-making industry.
That same year, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) patented “3 Dimensional Printing techniques,” a procedure registered with the term 3-D Printing, which is formally shortened as 3DP. In 1995, Z Corporation got sole permission from MIT to utilize the technique and began creating 3D printers based on 3DP. In 1996, three companies launched the updated versions of their 3D printers. In 1997, 3D Systems bought the STEREOS product line of European producer, EOS. EOS gained exclusive patent rights for laser sintering technology.
In the history of 3D printing, it wasn’t until the mid-2000s that two breakthroughs were conquered. In 2005, the first high definition color 3D printer was rolled out by Z Corp. In 2006, RepRap, an open source project kicked off, aimed at developing a self-replicating 3D printer. Since it is free software and it has a self-replicating ability, developers foresaw the potential to cheaply distribute RepRap units to people and communities, allowing them to come up with complex products without the necessity of costly manufacturing. In 2008, the first version of RepRap was launched, manufacturing about 50 percent of its own parts.
That same year, Objet Geometries Ltd. released its radical rapid prototyping system that can manufacture 3-D parts using numerous diverse materials simultaneously.
In 2010, two milestones in both the automotive and medical industry was reached. In November 2010, Urbee, the first model car with its whole body printed out on an enormous 3D printer at Statasys, was introduced. In December 2010, information on the first complete bio-printed blood vessels were published by Organovo, Inc., a regenerative medical laboratory and research company that designs and makes three-dimensional human tissue for medical research and therapeutic applications. Also in 2010, US company 3D Filament giant J&R Filaments began dropshipping and manufacturing filament.
On the first month of 2011, Dutch manufacturer Ultimaker that develops products from open source 3D printers modified the 300 mm/second travel rate to 350 mm/second; and Cornell University engineers started to assemble a 3D food printer. In June 2011, designer Continuum Fashion in collaboration with 3D printer Shapeways announced the first 3d printed two-piece bathing suit.
In July 2011, developers led by the University of Exeter, the University of Brunel, and application developer Delcam in the United Kingdom created the world’s first 3D chocolate printer called ChocALM for Chocolate Additive Layer Manufacturing. A month after, engineers at the University of Southampton developed the world’s first 3D printed aircraft.
In September 2011, the Vienna University of Technology launched a smaller, lighter, and cheaper printing machine, which weighed 1500 grams and cost over US$1600. In October 2011, Roland DG Corporation introduced the iModela iM-01, which prints tiny collectible figures, ornaments and essentially anything that is minute.
Today, history of 3D printing is still continuing because the technology carries on with enhancements, updates, and improvements in numerous ways–from the sophistication of detail to a finished product to speed it is needed to model an object to the completion of a printed one. The methods are becoming quicker, the materials and equipment are becoming more inexpensive, and numerous materials are being utilized. If you are looking to save on 3D filaments, you should visit www.cheap3dfilaments.com.
We have more often heard about the problem of rising damp in buildings such as homes, offices, commercial places or any other places. But only few people exactly know what actually rising damp is? Let us discuss about the same in current article.
Rising damp – Rising damp refers to problem of water rising through the bricks, mortar, stone work etc. due to increase in the level of ground water. It leads to dampening of the walls, ceiling, and flooring and hence makes them weak. It may even lead to destruction of the concerned building if the problem is not identified and treated well-in-time.
Cause of rising damp – Rising damp is mostly caused due to increase in the ground level of owing to construction or addition of a new path or drive way around the already existing path/driveway. Even improper damp-proofing of a building may also lead to this problem. It is because when a building or property is not treated properly for dampness then the chances of rising damp becomes manifold. The rising damp leaves behind white coloured powder on the walls, which is in reality the soluble salts present in the ground water.
Method of occurrence of rising damp – As stated above, due to improper or complete absence of damp-proofing treatment at the base of any building during its construction, the problem of rising damp arises. With the passage of time, the ground level water keeps on rising through the construction material of the building and reaches the maximum height. Sometimes, the damp proof membrane which is constructed around the buildings gets damaged. This in turn leads to the problem of rising damp.
Problems caused due to rising damp – Rising damp leads to many types of problems in any building. As an instance, the timber and wooden structures in the building suffering from rising damp starts decaying. It is due to dampening of the wood by the presence of moisture in the walls and the wooden structures. Even the walls, ceiling and flooring of the concerned building may also experience cracks.
Identifying rising damp – The most common and visible signs of rising damp in any building is the dampness, moisture appearing on the walls, ceiling and the flooring. Even wooden surfaces of the building may also start getting dampness and hence deteriorate slowly. You may even experience dampening and wetting of the walls by touching them with your hand. Apart from this, you will also find presence of white colored powder on the walls. It is due to the soluble salts in the ground water which are left on the walls when the moisture dries out.
Treatment of rising damp – Upon first detection of the rising damp at your place, you need to take apt and effective measures so as to treat the problem of rising damp. It helps in prevention of further damage at your place. For this, you may take help from professionals such as damp proofing London. They may advise you getting your place injected with water repellent chemicals or fitting of fresh physical damp proof membrane to the affected areas.
By now we have learnt almost everything about rising damp.